Vol. 5 No. 01 (2022)
Original Article

Clinical Presentation and Outcome of Neonatal Tetanus in Hospitalized Patient

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Ayesha Begum
Assistant Professor, Department of Pediatrics. Chittagong Medical College, Chattogram, Bangladesh
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Sumona Chowdhury
Assistant Professor, Department of Paediatrics. Chittagong Medical College, Chattogram
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A. K. M. Harun-Ar-Rashid
Assistant Professor, Department of Orthopaedic Surgery, Cox’s Bazar Medical College, Cox’s Bazar
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Md. Ayub Ali
Associate Professor, Department of Orthopaedic Surgery, Cox’s Bazar Medical College, Cox’s Bazar
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Mohammad Shaha Alam
Assistant Professor, Department of Surgery, Cox’s Bazar Medical College, Chattogram, Bangladesh
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Mohammad Shah Kamal Uddin
Junior Consultant, Department of Orthopaedic Surgery, Cox's Bazar Sadar Hospital, Cox's Bazar
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Muhammad Amzad Hussain
Medical Officer of Orthopaedic surgery, 250 bed district sadar Hospital, Cox's Bazar, Bangladesh
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ShorifUz Zaman
Junior consultant of Orthopaedic surgery, 250 beded general Hospital, Gopalganj. Bangladesh
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M.A. Hassan Chowdhury
Professor&Director, BITID, Faujdarhat, Chottogram. Bangladesh
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Abstract

Background: Neonatal tetanus can kill neonates. This problem persists in many poor countries. In 2010, NT caused 58,000 deaths worldwide, and in 2013, 49,000. Anaerobic, gram-positive Clostridium tetani bacteria cause tetanus. tetanoplasmin causes tetanus. Dirty equipment or materials used during or after birth might infect the umbilical stump or cord.In Bangladesh, as in most underdeveloped nations, tetanus is a severe public health problem, causing many illnesses and deaths. Without proper care, newborn tetanus has a significant fatality rate.trismus affects 95.7% of patients, neck stiffness affects 89.3%, body spasms/stiffness affects 73%, and dysphagia affects 38.9%. Neonatal Tetanus is preventable but causes major problems worldwide, especially in developing nations. Inadequate wound care and lack of immunization information contribute to tetanus in poor countries. High-income countries have low tetanus rates due to a robust immunization program. In this study, we focused on Neonatal Tetanus in hospitalized patients. Objective: The aim of the study is to evaluate tClinical Presentation and Outcome
of Neonatal Tetanus in Hospitalized Patient. Method: Prospective observational studies at Hospital records were utilized to acquire newborn tetanus information from April 2017 to January 2018. The study was a hospital-based prospective investigation of Tetanus in BITID newborns. In this study, 10 kids were admitted. Results: Patients with newborn tetanus ranged in age from 6-17 days. 6 (60%) of the 10 tetanus patients were male and 4 (40%) were female, giving a 3:2 male-to-female ratio. 4 (40%) patients were from Chittagong metropolitan city, 3 (30%) from outside the city, and 3 (30%) from Feni district. Trismus (lock jaw) was the most common presenting symptom, occurring in 9 (90%) patients, followed by muscle spasms (8, 80%), reluctance to breastfeed (10, 100%), high body temperature (5, 50%), opisthotonos (2, 20%), and respiratory distress (4, 40%). None of the mothers were tetanus-vaccinated. Seventy percent (70%) patients were discharged following treatment, while three died. Two patients (30%) died within hours after arrival, one from tetanus with septicemia. Conclusion: Underdeveloped regions continue to face a tetanus mortality crisis. Low health awareness, a lack of human and financial resources, and a lack of trauma treatment have hampered the global immunization effort to eliminate neonatal, pediatric, and maternal diseases. Hospitalbased studies are useful for assessing immunization efforts and acquiring tetanus data.The study emphasizes the need for the vaccine-preventable tetanus is still common in this region. High morbidity and mortality make it difficult to treat. Early diagnosis, public health education, and a hospital ICU would reduce morbidity and mortality.

 

Published 14-11-2022

Keywords

  • Child,
  • Tetanus,
  • Patient,
  • Disease,
  • Public health

How to Cite

1.
Begum A, Chowdhury S, A. K. M. Harun-Ar-Rashid, Ali MA, Alam MS, Uddin MSK, Hussain MA, Zaman S, Chowdhury MH. Clinical Presentation and Outcome of Neonatal Tetanus in Hospitalized Patient. The Insight [Internet]. 2022 Nov. 14 [cited 2023 Feb. 4];5(01):198-204. Available from: https://bdjournals.org/index.php/insight/article/view/224