Vol. 7 No. 01 (2023)
Original Article

Clinical and Electroencephalogram Patterns of Refractory Epilepsy in Children

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Murshida Mosharref
Classified Child Specialist, Department of Paediatric Neurology, Combined Military Hospital, Dhaka, Bangladesh
Nazmul Hamid
Classified Child Specialist, Department of Paediatric Neurology, Combined Military Hospital, Dhaka, Bangladesh
Md Shoriful Islam
Classified Child Specialist, Department of Paediatrics, Combined Military Hospital, Dhaka, Bangladesh
A S M Sabbir
Medical Officer, Department of Paediatrics, Combined Military Hospital, Dhaka, Bangladesh

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Abstract

Introduction: Refractory epilepsy, impacting 10–20% of children with epilepsy, significantly affects the child's education, social interactions, cognitive function, and recreational activities. A thorough clinical assessment can unveil precise syndromic and etiological diagnoses. Recent strides in neuroimaging and electrophysiology have transformed the management, complementing clinical evaluation. Aim of the study: This study aimed to assess the clinical and electroencephalogram patterns of refractory epilepsy in children. Methods & materials: This prospective observational study was conducted at the Department of Pediatric Neurology, Combined Military Hospital, Dhaka, Bangladesh from July 2022 to June 2023. A total of 42 diagnosed cases of refractory epilepsy were selected as study subjects using a purposive sampling technique. Data collection was conducted using MS Office tools. Results: This study found that 50% of cases had syndromic epilepsy, 33% had symptomatic epilepsy, and 74% had onset within the first year. Episodes lasted minutes and occurred over 5 times annually. Regarding EEG findings, consistent with generalized epileptogenic activity was observed in the highest number of cases (28.58%). 14.29% of cases showed generalized tonic-clonic seizure. In the current study, diagnostic findings revealed that the highest number of cases (33.33%) had infantile spasms. Additionally, 16.67% and 9.52% of cases were identified with seizure disorder and refractory epilepsy with tuberous sclerosis, respectively. Conclusion: Among children with refractory epilepsy, syndromic epilepsy is most prevalent. To pinpoint distinctive features such as generalized tonic-clonic seizures, epileptogenic activity, infantile spasms, and epileptic encephalopathy, the electroencephalogram (EEG) emerges as a highly effective diagnostic tool.

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Published 10-02-2024

Keywords

  • Clinical pattern,
  • Electroencephalogram,
  • Refractory epilepsy,
  • Children,
  • Seizure,
  • Infantile spasm
  • ...More
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How to Cite

1.
Mosharref M, Hamid N, Islam MS, Sabbir ASM. Clinical and Electroencephalogram Patterns of Refractory Epilepsy in Children. Planet (Barisal) [Internet]. 2024 Feb. 10 [cited 2024 Jul. 25];7(01):439-47. Available from: https://bdjournals.org/index.php/planet/article/view/448