Vol. 6 No. 01 (2023)
Original Article

Observation of Socio-demographic Characteristics and Risk Factor on the Occurrence of Birth Defects

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Nusrat Shams
Junior Consultant, Department of Pediatrics, National Institute of Neurosciences and Hospital, Dhaka, Bangladesh
Mohammad Rafiqul Islam Khan
Junior Consultant, Department of Orthopaedics, Secratariat Clinic, Dhaka, Bangladesh
Alif Laila
Medical Officer, OSD (DGHS), Deputed to Dhaka Medical College, Dhaka, Bangladesh
Ahmed Imran Hossain
Medical Officer, Department of Pediatric Neurology, National Institute of Neurosciences and Hospital, Dhaka, Bangladesh
Mohammad Mohsin
Junior Consultant, Department of Pediatrics, Kuwait Bangladesh Friendship Hospital, Dhaka, Bangladesh

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Abstract

Introduction: Birth defects significantly contribute to neonatal mortality and morbidity worldwide. Socio-demographic characteristics and environmental risk factors have been associated with the occurrence of birth defects. Methods and materials: This case-control observational study was conducted at the Pediatric Surgery and Medicine Department in Dhaka Shishu (Children) Hospital, Bangladesh, from January 2012 to December 2013. A total of 280 infants aged 0-364 days were recruited, with 140 cases presenting structural birth defects, and 140 control infants without any structural birth defects. Detailed socio-demographic and risk factor data were collected and analyzed using SPSS V.16. Results: The mean maternal age of the case and control group were being observed 25.86±5.196 and 23.41±4.65 years which was statistically significant (p=0.001). The mean paternal age in the case and control group were being observed 32.10±5.39 and 29.85±6.38 years which was also statistically significant (p=0.05). Paternal exposure to insecticides, fertilizers, and prolonged sunlight, as well as both paternal smoking and maternal passive smoking, were all significantly more common in the case group (p=0.001). The distribution of birth defects in the case group was most frequently observed within the gastrointestinal system (17.9%), followed by the genitourinary system (15.7%), and cardiovascular system (14.3%). Conclusion: This study highlights the associations of socio-demographic characteristics and environmental risk factors with the occurrence of birth defects in Bangladesh. These findings emphasize the importance of improved parental education, occupational health and safety, and access to prenatal care in rural areas to reduce the risk of birth defects.

Published 28-11-2023

Keywords

  • Neonatal,
  • Defect,
  • Socio-demographic,
  • Disability,
  • Congenital

How to Cite

1.
Shams N, Khan MRI, Laila A, Hossain AI, Mohsin M. Observation of Socio-demographic Characteristics and Risk Factor on the Occurrence of Birth Defects. The Insight [Internet]. 2023 Nov. 28 [cited 2024 Apr. 23];6(01):4-11. Available from: https://bdjournals.org/index.php/insight/article/view/330